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CROPS AND MARKETS FOR RELEASE MONDAY APRIL. 2b, 194$ VOLUME 58 sHEEF (Page 370) NUMBER 17 PALM OIL (Page 373) CONTENTS Page COTTON AND OTHER FIBER Cotton-Price Quotations on Foreign Markets.... 391 Cotton Crop bstimate in India Revised Downward..... 392 Belgian Cotton Consumption Running Below Last Season 393 Greek Cotton Consumption Continues at High Level.,. 394 Jute Supply Continues Scarce.. 396 FATS AND OILS Exports of Palm Oil and Falm Kernels Increase in 1948 373 World Lard Production Reaches Postwar Peak in 1948 ' 381 Current Cuban Lard and Tallow Situation 385 Dominican Republic's 1948 Fats and Oils Production Approximates 1947 Level 387 Philip pine Republic's Exports of Copra and Coconut Oil Continued to Increase in March 389 FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND NUTS Apple and Pear Crops Larger in Argentina.. 402 Australian 1949 Raisin and Currant Forecast Lowered 404 Apple Crop Larger in Switzerland.... ......... 403 GRAINS, GRAIN PRODUCTS AND FEEDS Wheat Agreement Goes to U. S. Senate; Signed by 41 Countries 378 Decline in Argentine Corn Exports,.. , 378 Siam' s Rice Exports Increase Sharply..... 390 TOBACCO Brazil's Tobacco Exports Decline, -i-00 France's Tobacco Acreage and Production Drop; Imports Reduced 401 Costa Rica's Tobacco Production Larger; Imports Decline 402 TROPICAL PRODUCTS Dominican Republic's 1948 Cacao Exports and 1948-49 Production Lower..., , 398 Mexican 1948 Coffee Exports Lower; 1948-49 Production Higher... 399 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OFFICE OF FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL RELATIONS WASHINGTON 25, D.C. 369 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 58, No.17 WHEAT ALLOCA TIONS ENDED The following announcement was released on April 19 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: "immediate deallocation of wheat and wheat flour was announced today by the International Emergency Food Committee of the FAO Council. The action was taken by IEFC on the recommendation of its Committee on Cereals . The action is effective at once. The functions of the Committee on Cereals are also discontinued as of today. In recommending immediate deallocation of wheat and wheat flour — the remaining cereals in addition to rice under international allocation — the Committee on Cereals took account of the approximate balance in 19l+3-l|.9 between world wheat supplies and import requirements as measured by ability to pay for wheat imports. Looking ahead to the I9I4.9-5O season, the Committee noted particularly the reserve stocks of wheat and coarse grains in North America and the favorable April crop report for winter wheat in the United. States of America." This action brings to an end the activities of a Committee whose efforts were, directed toward achieving an equitable distribution of available ' supplies of cereals during the critical postwar emergency period. FOREIGN CROPS AND MARKETS Published- weekly to inform producers, processors, distributors and consumers of farm products of current developments abroad in the crop and livestock. industries, foreign trends in prices and consumption of farm products, and world agricultural trade. Circulation of this periodical is free, but restricted to those needing the information it contains for the conduct of their production, marketing, educational, news dissemination and other related activities. Issued by the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations of the United States Department of Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C. 1 April 25, 19J+8 Foreign Crops and Markets 370 WORLD SHEEP NUMBERS RISE l/ World sheep numbers, estimated at 7^0 million head at the beginning of 19^9, continued to increase for the second consecutive year, accord- ing to the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations. These numbers are about 5 million head above the preceding year, but 20 million head, or 3 percent, below the 1936-l+G prewar average. The generally improved grazing conditions and higher prices received for wool, mutton and lamb have encouraged expansion of flocks in some of the major sheep -producing areas of the world. Although sheep numbers increased in many of the important producing countries, the principal gains occurred in Australia, Turkey, Spain, Rumania, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. These gains more than offset the declines that took place in the United States, Argentina and China. Notwithstanding the increases, sheep number in Australia and most of the European and African countries continue to be below the 1936-40 prewar average. On the other hand, numbers in the United States, the United Kingdom and Rumania are the lowest in many years and are now 38, 26, and 19 percent, respectively , - below their prewar levels. Factors which have affected sheep production varied with the re- spective producing countries. Numbers in Canada and the United States have fallen off largely because of more profitable alternative agricultural enterprises. A similar' situation, together with inadequate market out- lets, has caused numbers to decline in Argentina. Recovery of sheep numbers in the United Kingdom has been retarded by the further development of the dairy industry, which competes for grasslands and fodder crops. More favorable grazing conditions and increased demand for wool, and to a lesser extent, for mutton and iamb, contributed to the sizable increases in Australia, Turkey, Spain and the Soviet Union, while the effects of war reduced numbers in China and Greece. Generally, inadequate grazing throughout the year and unfavorable weather conditions at time of lambing have slowed recovery in other sheep -producing areas of the world. Further recovery of world sheep numbers will depend principally on favorable growing conditions and greater economic returns from sheep farming in relation to other farm enterprises. Profitableness of the sheep business is the factor that will determine whether producers in Canada, Argentina and the United States will expand their flocks. In the principal wool-producing countries, the price of wool will be the deciding factor as to whether or not herds are expanded, while in other countries, the price of mutton and lamb and the domestic need for wool will be the determining factor in i ncrea sing numbers. This is one of a series of regularly scheduled reports on world agricultural production, approved by the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations Committee on Foreign Crops and Livestock Statistics. For this report the committee was composed of Joseph A. Becker, Chairman, C. M. Purves , Elmer A. Reese, Hazel B . Kefauver, Karen J. Friedmann, and Dwight R. Bishop. (Table on following pages) 1/ A more extensive statement may be obtained from the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations. 371 to J¥ £h 8 r— co oj ^i- OJ i"-\co r^OJ O kiud r— so o i-4 i^v ir\r— o o MD OJ co .4- ■ CO CT.U3 O >^D i en ^ o h J- pj c» co in co r^i rH c-^t- o cr> oj cri oj rH O O 50 o o -H-VJD <TlO rH 8riNOoonmwBC\jo ocor^-cTNOcrM^ojirMio (Tir-O H r-W (7\r^HVO h- o mo !T\!0 W OMA *VJ0 r— rH f^VD g} <^ 1 8>S ,O05 -I CO rH O rH ir\oj lp>o t^i 3 83 ■no cr\ c\h in " 0 rH H- Hinoo r^-MTiOJ rH ^r> vo i— >.d co i — r— co cr>.=r o .-t f*^M3 w h wvd om IT\ r«-\ r( I s — J- C O r- .=}• l^cN ct>i^-oi^h h I^.H CTM^W H >*>^ ^1 ^ » SSI >^]Sfe >1 O VO CO CO I CO f IT\0J rH r-l rH OJ C 0) \r\r—r-i " J- r- oj oj vjd oj >jd t— oj r-o-\ir>i F~-rH O rH OM f '^"^1 SiSSi "sSSS rH OJ total. : i i :> . . . . erj o o o o c ... a) . . . tS • • • cd ru \m " rH ' CO eg i o >d -n "9 <D O (D -P Albania. Austria. Belgium. 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O (3 « wlo a o 01 r*-\ O firHI C ^i z OJl Cfl Cfl O Cfl u -so S W \ri _ S£ SO en cfl cn O CD • 01 Pi H ITl +3 CD CD r) O - \ oi \ K <m UjloSO rH j CD LCi CD O rHlrH|'JT> 373 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 53, No, 17 EXPORTS OF PALM OIL AND PALM KERNELS INCREASE IN 1948 1/ There was a marked increase in the exports of palm oil and palm kernels from producing areas in 1948 over those of 1947.* an( i it appears that the world production of these important vegetable-oil products from the tropics is rapidly approaching the levels of prewar years. palm Oil Exports of palm oil from the major palm oil producing countries of> the world are estimated to have been 429,000 short tons in 194.8, This estimate, derived from data received recently, is 4O percent higher than the tonnage exported in 1947* It Is less by one-fifth, however, than the average quantity exported in the prewar period 1935-39* Palm oil exports in 1949 ma y sharply exceed shipments in I948. Present indications are that the volume entering international trade in 1949 may be somewhere between 535*000 and 580,000 tons. This would be an increase of 25 to 35 percent over the quantity exported in 19.48* The increase in 1949 exports over those of 1948 from Africa may be about 32,000 tons. Malayan exports may be up 3*000 tons, Indonesia's increase, che greatest in both absolute and relative terms, may be somewhere between 70,000 and 115,000 tons, Africa and the Far East are the areas in which exportable supplies of palm oil, and palm kernels as well, originate. Africa supplied half of the world's palm oil exported in prewar years. The Far East, specifically British Malaya and Indonesia, supplied the remaining half. During war years Africa became virtually the sole source of palm oil when the Japanese occupied British Malaya and Indonesia in 1942 and promptly cut off all shipments. African supplies throughout the war and part of the postwar period were regulated rigidly by the European countries controlling the producing areas. This prevented supplies from becoming generally available to world markets. The palm oil industry in both British Malaya and Indonesia suffered seriously from the 3-y ea ** occupation by the enemy. Exports of palm oil from Malaya, which prior to the war was the source of 10 percent of all exports, surpassed prewar levels in both 1947 a nd 1948. Such is not the case with respect to Indonesia which, in the 1935~39 period, was the source of 40 percent of all exports. Since World War II, civil and military disturbances, which have postponed complete recovery of the palm oil industry in Indonesia, have held production and exports at levels far below prewar. Only in those territories presently controlled by the Dutch is it known that the oil palm plantations are being rehabilitated as quickly as possible. Little is known of the status of the plantations in territory controlled by the Indonesian Republicans. Probably not until all of the plantations are rehabilitated will Indonesia regain Its former prominence as a world source of palm oil. 1/ Thu palm oil and palm kernel situation is reviewed here in terms of exports, rather than production, owing to the availability of more complete data regarding the former. A more extensive statement may bo obtained from the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations, April 25, 1949 Foreign Crops and Markets 374 PA1M OIL: Exports from principal producing countries, average 1935-39, annual 1946-48 (Short tons) Country of origin." : Average . . . y Africa; ; : ' ; : Belgian Congo .,.....: 72,450 • 96,658 : 93,624 s 121,680 Sierra Leone : ' 1,943 : 100 : 2/ : 2/ French Equatorial Africa. .. • .'6,314 : : 1,490 ♦ 2,837 1 2,415 French Camer oons .' 9,75^ : ' 1,7X1 :' 1,128 : 3,000 Dahomey , :3/21,106 :.' 629 : 783 : ( French Guinea >.3_/ ' 2k0 : 2/ : 2/ :4/(6,575 Ivory Coast :3/ 3,285 : ' 151' r -2 : ( French Togo„ . . : ' 1,842 « '10 5 85 1 : 1,197 Gold Coast : . 549 : 185 : ■• 205: 4.00 Liberia.,., - : 1.245 : ' ' 495 : 1,237 : 1,300 Nigeria...,....., s 153^890 j 112,990 • l4L,068 : 184,312 Angola....-., , .: 3,254 : ' 16,716 13,646 : 11,000 Portuguese Guinea. : . 950 : ' 1,200 ; 1,069 ; 1,000 Total Africa : ~276",9 I2 ; "232,334 2^b^W :__ 332,879 ~ British Malaya, ; '[ 47,360^7; ' 9^3X2" ": ^O/fJX : 54,6 ""6B~ Indonesia § 212,685 ; ; r " ; 1J28 ; 4l,0~4"0 Total ;, 536 ,957 : : 24 I,643~"; 308,949 ; 428,587 l/ Preliminary estimate. £/ No exports indicated. ' • 3/ Average 1934-38. ' 5/ Total French West Africa; colony distribution not available. 5/ Revised. Compiled from official sources. Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations - Fats, Oils and Rice Division, 375 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 58, ITo . 16 PALM KERNELS: Exports from principal producing countries, average 1935-39, annual 1946-48. (Short tons) Country of origin Average 1935-39 1946 19V7 Africa: : Belgian Congo : 72,450 Gambia., : 776 Sierra Leone • 83,775 French Equatorial Africa.: 14,283 French Camer oons : 39,^70 Dahomey : 56,700 Fr enc h Guinea : 17 , 500 Ivory Coast • 10,300 Senegal : 2,700 French Togo : 13,775 Gold Coast : 7,987 Liberia : 10,130 Nigeria : 369,292 Angola : 6,678 Portuguese Guinea : 13,400 Total Africa ; 719,31 8 British Malaya : 8,133 Indonesia : 55~i3V Total , ; 771, \b2 l/ Preliminary. 2/ No exports indicated. 57,170 1,212 52,600 8,392 28,791 24,300 8,646 4,6l2 1,429 3,151 6,667 974 310,512 14,309 14,560 53,310 1,344 70,532 10,260 28,578 28,344 13,439 1,207 1,122 5,137 4,106 3,939 35^,341 14,308 20,000 537,325 I75 609,670 5,874 2/ T7W 537,500 617,302 Compiled from official sources. Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations - Fats, Oils, and Rice Division. April 25, 1949 Foreign Crops and Markets 376 The principal sources of African palm oil exports are the two colonies Nigeria and the Belgian Congo. Their combined shipments in prewar years comprised over two-fifths of world exports. Nigeria's exports in 1948, half again as large as those of the Belgian" Congo"7 are estimated at 184,300 tons. Representing an increase of nearly one-third over the quantity exported in 1947* this tonnage exceeded the prewar average by one-fifth. Results of efforts by the Nigerian Government to increase production in this colony, where by far the dominant share of total output comes from wild pe.lms harvested by the natives, may contribute materially to an increase in the supplies exported in 1949 • Total exports of 200,000 tons are probable. Palm oil exports from the Belgian Congo last year totaled' 12,1,700 tons. This was yO percent more" than The quantity shipped out in 1947> and 70 percent over the tonnage exported in 1935-39* I* 1 "the Congo, wartime and subsequent efforts to expand production of palm oil through plantings on new areas are bringing favorable results, A predicted increase in production, 11 percent over last year's- output, probably should permit exports in 1949 totaling 138,000 tons. This would be about 13' percent more than total shipments in 1948. Exports from the remaining 10 palm oil exporting countries of Africa (see table) totaled' 2b, 800 tons in" 1948. This represents"" a gain of nearly one-fourth from the year before when only 21,800 tons were exported. In comparison with prewar, shipments in 1948 were only a little more than half as large. It is assumed that, as a whole, exports in 1949 from the 10 countries indicated will not be materially above the levels of last year. Increases in some probably will be offset by decreases in others, ■ Exports from the Far East in 1943 were up more than 80 percent from the year before. Shipments from British Malaya last year totaled 34,700 tons, 8 percent more than the tonnage exported in 1947 » Exports in both 1947 aR -d 1948 exceeded the Malayan prewar level. The relatively high export levels in the last 2 years are regarded by some authorities as a true reflection of the degree to which the Malayan palm oil industry has been rehabilitated. Since the palm oil industry is situated favorably when compared to other industries in Malaya, it appears that exports in 1949 may exceed those in I9I4.8 by as much as 3,000 tons or approximately 3 percent. Supplies of palm oil exported from Indonesia in I948 totaled 41,000 tons. This abnormally small quantity, though greater than the 1,728 tons shipped out in 1947* was only one-fifth as great as exports in prewar years. Results of intensive efforts to rehabilitate the plantations in the unoccupied areas of Indonesia are expected to become apparent this year. Estimates of exports In 1949* as ma.de by official and trade representatives, vary considerably. It is highly probable that Indonesian exports in 1949 rs -y he somewhere between 110,000 and 155*000 tons, an exceptionally sharp increase over shipments in 1948. 511 Foreign Crops and. Llarkets Vol. 53, No. 17 Palm Kernels Exports of pain kernels, like palm oil, were considerably higher in 191+3 than in 1947* An estimated 711,600 short tons was shipped from major producing countries last. year. This quantity exceeded total shipments in both 1946 and 1947 oy 15 arL 6 '32 percent, respectively. Despite marked increases in postwar exports, shipments in I948 were still 8 percent below prewar levels. Africa is the source of almost all palm kernels entering world trade. - prewar exports from Africa . comprised 93 percent of total ship- ments. From I9U6 to 19-1-8 the proportion varied from virtually 100 to 97 percent. Shipments from the Far Fast - from British Malaya and Inaonesia - comprised the small remainder. Three colonies - Nigeria, the Belgian Congo, and Sierra Leone - normally supply the bulk of the kernels exported from Africa. In I948 nearly four-fifths of the total quantities exported from that continent came from the above three colonies. ■ Exports of palm 'kernels from Nigeria in 1943 totaled 382,800 tens. This quantity, the greatest in any of the postwar years, exceeded ship- ments in 1947 by 8 percent and was 4 percent above the prewar average. Shipments of kernels 'from the 3elg ian Cong o in I946 comprised a - total of 91*900 tons. This represents a sharp increase, nearly 75 per- cent, over the quantity exported in 1947 and was more than one-fourth above the* prewar export level. Sierra Leone's exports of palm kernels in 1948 are estimated 'at 70,600 ton's. Virtually the same as the quantity exported in 1947* the volume in I948 was loss than the. average of pr o'.-ar years by one-sixth. The combined exports from the regai ning 12 palm kernel exporting countries in Africa (seo table) totalecT"l4b,200 tons IrTH^T, TTrTs~was 12 percent greater than the quantity shipped in 1947 but was below the prewar average by nearly one -fourth. Total' shipments of kernels from the Far Fact - British Malaya and Indonesia - are of minor importance when compared with those from Africa. Shipments from the Far East comprised 3 percent of the total volume exported in 1946 and in prewar years they comprised 7 percent. (Continued on Page 404) 378 COMMODITY DEVELOPMENTS GRAINS , _GRAIN PRODUCTS A ND FEEDS WHEAT AGREEMENT GOES TO U.S. SENATE; SIGNED BY 1+1 COUNTRIES The recently negotiated International Wheat Agreement, signed by I4I countries as of the closing date of April 15, has been submitted to the United States Senate for consideration as a treaty. At the conclusion of the International Wheat Conference 1+2 countries (37 importers and 5 exporters) indicated an intention of signing the Agreement. All of these countries except Paraguay had signed by the closing date. At the time of signing, however, Peru reduced its guaranteed purchases from 200,000 to 1.50,000 metric tons. The net effect of these two actions is a reduction of 110,000 metric tons — 1+ million bushels — in the total guaranteed purchases of I4.56 million bushels involved in the Agreement. Unless other participat- ing Importing countries are willing to raise their guaranteed purchases by an offsetting amount, It will be necessary to make a slight reduction in the guaranteed sales of exporting countries. Final adjustment of the quantities involved will be made at the July meeting of the International Vfheat Council, provided a sufficient number of participating countries have formally accepted the Agreement by that time. DECLINE IN ARGENTINE CORN EXPORTS Corn exports from Argentina during the crop year just ended in that Southern Hemisphere country were 28 percent lower than last year and still far below the average prewar shipments, according to latest unofficial reports available to the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations. Corn exports declined from 2, 853*000 metric tons (112,316,000 bushels) in I9I+7-I+8 to 2,01+0,000 metric tons (80,319,000 bushels) in 191+8-1+9. This compares with the 193U-35/l938~39 prewar average of 6,398,000 metric tons (251,858,000 bushels). Thus, exports of this feed grain during the past year are only 32 percent of the average prewar shipment s . Except for most recent years, Argentina has l©ng been the world's leading exporter of oorn and a primary source of supplemental feeds for the large numbers of livestock in northwestern Europe. The Argentine corn crop year extends ' from April 1 until March 31 of the following year. Of the countries to which Argentine corn was shipped during the past crop year, the United Kingdom alone accounted for 1,221,000 metric tons (1+8,072,000 bushels) or 60 percent of the total. (See table). Other important destinations included Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, France, India and Italy. 379 h n k^-vc -21 O w o w^o^o o to ff.o rH H H ■> to o-\ ro »^ r 1 1 1 ^ ' 1 vo* 1 ^ ' 1 1 1 1 ' CM • I 11 o • m CM CO rH ■ * rH S3 ■5 rH O 6C O v£> O O 60 !?> o~ rH V.O CM ' u$ ' ON 60 O tr. CT> » ° 60 § t£ J" O 0) CTs p Sh H VXI +3 ^ . e cS CM o S - . 1 CJ >. rH ,£) -H <H ^ O m p. -p «< w r. 0 O h O O tn © o o e 3 E £ 8 60 o I I 1 1^ I 3 cv r^- p o 60 VC C\J C -3 rH O rH rH roi IT • I I I I I t rH CTN ' ^* 1 oT ' ' ' 1 o 60 CX< rH 60 CV ITI r- CT\J- OA rH *a 60 CVJ II -111 -II S3 • 2 Q f^^- I^M O CVJ U\Jt <J\-T~- r — Q JU) o^Oin O 60 ..... I • . CT> C\J «=f- rH lf \ l*> O J- -3 -=r ITv .CM mo -a 1 T ' « K> O O CM ^ CM OH CM h-60 l*A so" r-- ' cn r-T ' r«* CM rH rH I I - r i i i i i cm CM CV r^S <U iH PQ pa >. 9 fl ( t> I « C p p.. W 0) "H J3 3 +» t> H 4 W ri April 25, 1949 Foreign Crops and Markets 380 Argentina: Corn Exports, by months, average 1934-35 to. 1938-39, annual 1945-46 to 1948-49 l/ (1,000 metric tons of 2, 204.6 pounds each) Month : Average 1934-35 to : 1938-39 1945.46 1946-47 1947 -48 1948-49 July 616 48 341 115 205 Augus t „ 3^ 307 5 • * iL ¥* September 710 . 34 233 J 195 126 October. 649 . 22 190 339 ' 273 November 586 65 184 495 333 December 507 ; 109 87 ' 488 ' 252 July -December . .... 3,692 312 1,342 1,789 1,361 January 498 110 104 314 226 i t Ji Udi ,y. ........... JH- L "I lis 101 . -j u1 . • 8P March 276 106 96 207 42 April 429 116 125 105 Ma y. ........ ........ J J J p^p YD ft! O J. June , 551 148 • 47 , 133 January-June 2,648 857 543 1,141 July -June 6,340 : 1,169 ' 1,885 ' 2,930 : l/ Official data prior to June 1948, unofficial trade statistics for period June 1948, to date. 381 Foreign Crops -and Markets Vol. 5c, Ho. 17 The average monthly shipments of corn from Argentina from April to August I9I+8 were 35 percent higher than in the corresponding months of 191+7 . During September to .March l^l^-h9t however, these shipments averaged 1+3 percent lower than the saiue period in the previous year. The net effect, of course, was that the total I9I+8-I+9 shipments were 28 percent lower than in I9I+7-I+8. This falling off of Argentine exports reflected, in part, the news of extremely good prospects for the United States' corn crop. The. possibility of lower prices for corn combined with increased export availabilities from the .-United States also contributed to the decline. : March 191+9 shipments of corn -from Argentina totaled only 20 percent of the corresponding figure a year ago, and were the smallest for any month since October 19^5* * ... The year of highest exports of corn from -Argentina was 1931, when 9»767,000 rmetric tons : ( 3 81+, 5ll+, 000 bushels) were exported. The lowest exports during the 20-year period 1920-39 amounted to 2,61+2,000 metric tons (10l+, 016,000 bushels) in I-JJQ— a total that has not been exceeded since that time. The average exports of corn for the 20-year period was 5, 37]+, 000 metric tons (211,51+6,000 bushels). (Continued on Page 390 ) : FATS Al'iD OILS WORLD IARD PRODUCTION REACHES \ POSTWAR PEAK IN I9I+8 .!_/ World production .of lard, including unrendered pork fats, in I9I+8 was estimated at 2.1+ million short tons. The output in 19^+8j "the highest since the war, was only slightly above the I9I+7 production and .approximately 13 percent below the production in the prewar years 1935-39 • The Western Hemisphere produced almost twice as much lard as Europe. . Lard production increased in most countries since the war, but total world production was affected mainly by. a 350* 000-ton increase above the 1935 _ 39 average in the United ■ States . The United States is the world's largest producer of lard and in I9I+8 produced 1,165,000 tons or 1+9 percent of the world total. The postwar peak production was in 191+7 with 1,213,500 tons which was almost 50 percent above 1935-39 and k percent higher, than production in 191+8. An increase in hog slaughtering with an accompanying increase in animal- fat production is in prospect for 191+9 • The greater output of both lard and 'grease is expected as a .result' of an 8 percent increase in the I9I+8 fall pig crop and a probable . increase of 10 percent or more in the 191+9 spring pig crop. . Lard output in the summer and fall of 191+9 probably will be substantially greater than a 'year earlier. l/ A more extensive statement may be obtained from the Offioc of Foreign Agricultural Relations. 382 IAKD (including unrendored pork fats): Estimated world production by- specified countries, average 1935-39, annual 191+6-1+8 Continent : Average country I ^-39 : 1,000 : short tons NORTH AMERICA : Canada 2J+.7 Mexico . : 25. 0 Nicaragua........ : V United States...., : 8I5.O Cuba 3*0 Dominican Republic... ; V Total 2/....... : 877.7 Austria : 1+3*° Belgium ' 23. 0 Bulgaria... 11.0 Czechoslovakia : 1+8.0 Denmark 19»8 Finland...., : 3.3 France :• I32.O . Western Germany.. , •: 33 ( - l »0 Greece : 5*5 Hungary... 74.5 Ireland : 7..7 Italy : 171.0 Netherlands., 5I+.0 Norway : 2.2 Poland (19146 Frontier) : 123.O Portugal .* ..: 27. 0 Rumania 39.0 Spain , : 73-0 Sweden ' .: 10.0 ■ •Switzerland...... 1 7.7 United Kingdom : 19.0 Yugoslavia 75»0 Total (excl.U.S.S.R.) 2/.. ; 1,298.7 U.3.S.R. (Europe and Asia)....: 3U5.O ASIA : • cEina : . 100.0 Manchuria : 10.0 Japan > : 1.2 Philippine Islands 1.0 Total 2/ : 122.2 SOUTH AMERICA , : .Argentina 10.0 Brazil.' 66.0 Chile '....: 2.3 Colombia : 10.8 Ecuador : 1.0 Total 2/ : 100. l " AFRICA : Madagascar : 1.0 Angola i l/ Union of South Africa ,J_ Total : 1.7 OCEANIA : Australia : 1.6 New Zealand : .3 Total 27T 19U6 19^7 1,000 short tons 1,000 : 1,000 short tons : short tons Grand total 21.1+ 35-3: 2.0: 1,069.0: ; k.0: 3.0: 32.2: 38.7: 2.1: 1,213.5: 5.0: 3-3: 1,139.7: 1,299. 2,7U7.5 17.0 11.0 7.0 35.0 13.2 1.1 88.2 85.5 k.k h9.6 ,k.h 93.2 ll+.o 1.0 35.0 20.0 25.0 22.0 7.7 3.6 13.2 1+5. o 60U.1 80.0 10.0 1.0 1.0 97.o 25.0 63.0 2.0 12 .1+ 3-1 19.0 : 12.0: 8.8: 1+U.3: 13-2: 1.1: 99.2: 99.0: k.h: 57-3: 5»5: 109.6: ' 10.7: 1.1: 1+1.0: 20.0: 30. 0: 21+.3:. 7-7: 3-9 = 15.0: 60.0 : 5.1 130.0 100.0 10.0 1.0 1.0 117.0 125.5 1.7 2,095.6 22.0 69.0 2.5 11.4 1+.2 129.1 •3 •5: 1.0: 2,384.5 1/ No basis for estimate. 2/ Includes estimates for the above countries Tor which data are not avaiTable and for minor producing countries. Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations. Prepared or estimated on the basis of official statistics of foreign governments, reports of U.S. Foreign Service officers, results of office research, and other informatic 533 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 58, No. 17 Canada, in comparison with the United States, has not teen a large producer or consumer of lard. Canada's commercial production .for Iv'k is estimated at 27,000 tons.. Imports for l^hl <*r^ estimated at 6,900 tons. With a carry-over of about 2,000 tons at the beginning and end of the year and considering small exports, the domestic consumption will be approximately 31,000 tons. Lard production increased by over 50 per- cent, or 10,800 tons, from I9J4.6 to 19^7 • The I9I4.8 estimated production is down 5,200 tons from the previous year's production. Estimates of lard production in Mexico indicate a steady increase during the last two decades. In I948, the output was placed at about 39,000 short tons. This was an increase of nearly 60 percent from the prewar average. Imports of lard, which in recent years have come mainly from the United States, have teen declining as domestic production has increased. Brazil is one of the few Latin American countries that have been self-sufficient lard producers in recent years. Practically all the lard output is in southern Brazil, including the States of Rio Grande do Sul, Sao Paulo, Goiaz, Mato Grosso, and Hinas Gorais. In I9U8 production was estimated at 68,000 tons. Brazilian production averaged approximately 66,000 short tons annually during 1935-39* tut decreased during the succeeding years. In 1943* "the output was estimated at only 37,000 tons. By 19^4°, production had nearly reached the prewar output. The production of lard in Argentina was 25,000 short tons in I948 compared with the 1947 output of 22,000 tons. Lard processors were required to reserve 2g- percent for the local market at the official fixed price, with the balance available for export. Exports in I948 "were over twice the prewar average and 25 percent above 1947 exports. The heaviest shipments in I948 went to the United Kingdom. Lard production in most Latin American nations, apart from Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay, is insufficient to meet local demands. Cuba's lard production in I948, about 5,000 tons, was far below domestic requirements and there were periods during the year in which there was an acute shortage due to lack of sufficient imports. These shortages stimulated hog slaughter which helped to supply the Cuban need for fats. Frequently whole carcasses, except hams and shoulders, were rendered so that the producer could take full advantage of the high lard prices resulting from the shortage. Cuban imports in 1947 were 39,600 tons, over twice the prewar average imports. Production of lard in Colombia in I948 was estimated at 11,500 tons. Imports were kept at a minimum by government import controls. Production of lard in Chile is estimated at about 2,500 tons annually, which almost meets domestic requirements. Lard production in Ecuador of h,.,200 tons in I948 was an increase from 3*100 tons in 1945 c - n d production in 1949 i s expected to be at or above the level of last year, European output of lard and unrendered pork fats has increased slowly but steadily since the end of the war, but is still far below the prewar level. The estimated production in Europe in 1948 was 25 percent greater than in 1946, but total imports have decreased, largely because April 25, 1949 Foreign Crops and Markets 534 ©f smaller takings by the United Kingdom* Hog and lard production in parts of Europe is not dependent upon any one feed crop, such as corn. Grain and potatoes are used more extensively in certain countries, and supplemented with skimmed milk and protein feeds in varying degree. In most of the European countries, unrendered pork fats are more important than "commercial" lard. The United Kingdom has had an estimated commercial lard output of only 2,200 tons in each of the postwar years, but total hog fats produced are almost 15,000 tons. Lard imports have declined from a high of 91,200 tons in I9I4.5 to 17,200 in 191+7 • The United States furnished most of the imports in 191+7, but in I9I+8 Argentina was the large supplier. The production of lard and unrendered pork fat in V/e stern .Germany, an estimated 99,000 tons, is still far below prewar levels,. but has increased slightly from the wartime low. In I9I+8 over 29,000 tons of lard were shipped to Germany from the United States. Large quantities of foed are being made available to German hog producers to increase pork and lard production. This should bring about a greater output in 191+9. Italian production of lard and unrendered fat has increased over 15 percent for each of 'the postwar years since I9I+6. French production is estimated at about 110,000 tons in I9I+8. Imports into France, 58,600 tons in I9I+6, were down to 2[j.,500 tons or less than half in 191+7* The United States was the main supplier. Hog numbers in Hungary bear a relationship to corn production aimilar. to that in the United States. Next to bread, pork and hog fat are the most important items of diet among the lower income groups. Production of lard, which was estimated at 66,100 tons in I9I+8, h as increased each postwar year. In 191+7 Hungary exported approximately 57,300 "tons of lard. Lard production in Czechoslovakia, which varies generally with the supplies of available barley, corn and potatoes, is estimated at 35*070 tons in I9I+8. When there Is a shortage of feedstuff s, farmers slaughter even the suckling pigs, and otherwise reduce their hog population by shipping larger numbers to markets. Both Poland and Yugoslavia, normally heavy producers of lard and unrendered hog fats, had an output estimated in I9I+8 at I4.5, 000 tons and 60,000 tons, respectively. Poland imported lard from both the United States and Argentina in 191+8* Lard is not important in the edible fat supply of Denmark, which exports a substantial part of Its lard production to other European countries. Production In 191+2, estimated at 12,000 tons, was about 60 percent of the average output of prewar years. Lard was not t rationed in Denmark during the war, except on a voluntary basis, but it was often difficult to obtain. However, in October I9I+8, it was placed under a rationing system. The Soviet Union has the largest lard output of any country in the Eastern Hemisphere'. In I9I+8 production was estimated to have been 136,000 tons. Production was still far below the prewar level of 31+5*00° tons, however. 385 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 53, Fo. 17 Lard and unrendered hog fat- product ion data are not available for most countries of Asia, Africa, and Oceania. In several Asiatic and Forth African countries religious beliefs prevent widespread production and consumption of hog lard. Small amounts of lard are usually imported for consumption by European-colony groups. Hog fat production in China is believed to be large although no output statistics are available for that country. It is estimated at 120,000 tons for I9J4.8 . A large amount of the fat is eaten with the pork and used in ivays other than as lard. Lard is produced in Africa in very limited quantities in the Union of South Afripa^ Angola, and Madagascar, The lard production in Madagascar has decreased* from prewar levels. Production lias dropped from approximately 1,000 tons prewar to about 250 tons in I9I+8. The number of hogs slaughtered in Japan has been increasing, but is still far below prewar. Lard production there is estimated at about 1,000 tons, Australia and Hew Zealand are self-sufficient in regard to lard output. Few Zealand production has increased steadily since the war and is estimated at 8,000 tons for I9I-J-8. Exports were over 6,000 tons in I9I-J.8. Formally, there is not a great demand for lard, because the popula- tion prefers other fats and vegetable oils. Hog numbers in I9I4.S, estimated 'at 1,300,000 for Australia, and 51+5,000 for Few Zealand were" at prewar levels. Australian lard production has remained around li,600 tons annually, . - CURREFT CUBAN LARD AND TALLOW SITUATION ' LARD Cuban lard imports in the January-liar oh period totaled about 37 million pounds, or an- average of more than 12 million pounds per month. These receipts were more than double imports in the comparable period of 19^8, and 70 percent larger than in the preceding quarter, October- December I9I+8. - . All lard received in the last 5 months came from the Uni'oed States. A very large part of the imports during the quarter arrived in the last 6 weeks of the period, after the United States export controls were removed. -Prior to mid-February there was a lard shortage in Cuba, and many importers had ordered large quantities. They had opened irrevocable credits in advance, expecting that only a small part of the total quantities, ordered would be licensed for shipment, but hoping, neverthe- less, that they would receive generous amounts. Many of the purchase contracts were made at prices unjustified by the United ^tates spot market quotations. When United States e7.ports were decontrolled, exporters rushed te fill all orders on hand and., claim the credits deposited in their favor. .As a result, considerable quantities of lard were shipped to Cuba in late February and lii arch which cost importers much more than lard purchased alter the removal of export controls. Consumption of lard daring the first 3 months of. 19-49 is estimated at 22. million pounds, or 25 percert more than in the preceding quarter. Abundant supplies and greatly reduced prices, espeoially after decontrol April 25, 1949 Foreign Crops and Markets 386 of exports from the United' States, 'along with the increased seasonal demand that accompanies the sugar harvesting season, were responsible for the high rate of consumption. Cuban lard stocks, which, on January 1, 19i)-9 totaled 10.6 million pounds (about ijJ? days supply ),. increased to 26.5 million pounds' at the end of .March. This is probably enough to f ill 'commercial "pipe lines", and provide for all consumption require- ments until late June. Large receipts and a declining domestic market, where retailers refused to buy more than day-to-day requirements, have resulted in warehouse-stocks growing to unmanageable proportions. Domestic prices became competitive in mid-February when exports were decontrolled." Most of the time they. were below the flexible ceilings allowed. Dealers, with stocks previously acquired, have had to sell at or below cost to meet the prices of currently arriving lard priced at 15 cents per, pound, c.i.f. Havana. This lard wholesales generally at 13 to 20 cents. Cuba probably will need to import only small quantities of lard in the second quarter because present stocks in dealers * hands are very large. The practice of many merohants is such, however,' that if United States lard markets become firm or 'turn ."bullish", local importers will buy regardless of their stocks on hand. • ' TALLOW " Tallow production in Cuba in the first 3 months of 19^4-9* a "t approximately 3.8 million pounds, was larger than in comparable periods of recent years as a result of the relatively greater slaughter of beef cattle. The rate of tallow consumption by Cuban soap manufacturers during the first quarter was about 2.9 million pounds monthly, or 17 percent lower than that of the last months of Although Cuban manufacturers of soap -have found raw materials in abundant supply during the quarter, they -are Iiaving their difficulties, nevertheless. Their - soap inventories, which are heavy, were made of expensive materials. ■ Meanwhile, demand and prices for soap have dropped lower than had been anticipated. . . \ .... , . Tallow imports during the first quarter are estimated at 5*7 million pounds, or 23 percent more than in the previous quarter. Large quantities were imported in February to take advantage of favorable prices, which had become low compared to levels existing throughout most of I9I+8. The decontrol of United States fats exports permitted free movement of supplies. As prices dropped in March to their lowest point since before the war, soap makers were forced to curtail purchases to prevent accumulation of excessive inventories. The quantity now on hand is estimated at between 2.8 and 3»0 million pounds or about 1 months 's supply at current consump- tion rates. Such a ratio between stocks on hand and amount being used is quite 'normal in the Cuban soap industry. Tallow prices in Cuba also declined steadily and rapidly during the first quarter, prices of imported United States prime tallow foil from 13 to li-i- cents per pound c.i.f. Havana in early January to 8 to 9 cents in mid-March. Since exports of United States tallow were decontrolled, 387 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 58, ITa. 17 Cuban soapmskers have-not had difficulties with exorbitant price demands for locally produced soap fats. Prices for locally produced tallow approximat the prices of imported tallow, prices are lower than at any time since before the war, and now that raw material costs are down, soap prices are being cut sharply as manufacturers seek to spur consumption in order to increase the volume of their operations. Manufacturers report that sales are slow and that it is necessary to cut operations and inventories. Despite an increase in the domestic production of tallow in April and May, imports* totaling about 5*5 million pounds of scap fats may be necessary during the second .quarter. CUBA: Monthly imports of lard, inedible tallow and grease; average i943~46, and annual 19li7-49« l/, Lard Average : 1943-46 : 1947 Short : Short t ons : t ons 19U3 Short t ons 19U9 Short tons Jan. i 3,032: 4,328 336 3,684 263 . " 200 263 753 Feb. 3,033: 3*19** : 2,876 8,250 52 1,022 1,419 1,543 March 2,351: 1,515 1,949 5,141 .2/ 6,600 411 876 1,493 2/ 550 April 1,174 772 562 U06 May 2,474: 5,206 4,62o 1,60Q 1,273 2,212 June 3,008: 2,326 3,366 786 1,632 647 July 2,968 3,510 530 1,178 1,144 Aug. 3,359: 4,290 4,577 1,010 1,660 1,081 Sept. 3,399: 1,727 i,-767 737 580 732 Oct. 2,313: .4,742 1 , 269 1,060 1, l60 313 Nov, 2,U29: 5,019 5,o49 1+06 924 6 oi+ Dec. i+,322: ■ 2,359 4,379 977 270 1,315 Total 37,56o! 39,623 38,320 8,664 11,537' 11,657 Inedible Tr-llow and Grease Average 1943-4* Short tens 1947 Short cons 1943 Short tons 1949 Short tons l/ Revised data. &/ Estimated. Source: American Embassy, Havana. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC'S 1948 FATS AND OILS PRODUCTION APPROXIMATES I9U7 LEVEL Production of oleaginous materials in the Dominican Republic in 1948, with the exception of peanuts, continued at approximately the same level as in 1947, according to a report from the American Embassy, Ciudad Trujillo. April 25, 1949 Foreign Crops and Markets 3S3 The peanut crop reached a record of 10,200 short tons compared with the former peak outturn of 10,020 tons in 1 9*4.5 and almost 9,000 in I9I4.7. During I9U8 the Department of Agriculture, Livestock and Colonization began a plo.nting campaign to increase the area of peanuts. The program met with little success, however, as the actual area planted (1^1,210 acres) was less than that of the year before ( Z4.3 , 14.OO ) • Growers reportedly lacked enthusiasm to expand acreage because of the lack of a price increase incentive and the inexperience in growing a crop little known by many farmers. Higher yields in I9I+8 than in 1947 were the result principally of more favorable growing conditions and, to a lesser extent, to increased use of mechanized equipment (tractors, plows, and harrows loaned by the peanut oil factory). The Sociedad Industrial Dominicana, the only producer of peanut oil in the Dominican Republic, reported an output of 1,740 tons for the year 19^6, compared with 1,020 tons in 1947 and 1,520 tons in I9I4.6. Practically all of the peanut oil produced is sold in the domestic market} the small balance is exported. Production of coconuts during 194^ is estimated at 17*0 million nuts compared with 12.9 million in 1947 ■ Considerable interest in plant- ing coconuts has been demonstrated by farmers in several agricultural districts during the past year. The area of greatest coconut planting and production is around Samana ^ay, although in recent years increasing numbers of palms- have been planted near 5 a .n Cristobal and in the Central Cibao Valley. Only relatively insignificant quantities, of coconuts are exported in nut or shredded form. .Most of the output- is consumed, as food or expressed for oil for the domestic soap industry. The 194® coconut oil output Is unofficially estimated at 275 tons. Sesame has been produced in the 1 Dominican Republic for at least a decade, but little enthusiasm has been demonstrated among farmers for the cultivation of this crop, .production probably does. not exceed 100 tons annually, and usually about half of the output is. exported, mainly to Puerto Ricoo Hog lard, roughly estimated at 3*300 -ons in 1948* is produced mainly from rural slaughter. Inedible tallow production is small, and supplies to meet the country ' s requirements are imported, mainly from ' Argentina. ... The Dominican Republic 'produces between 90 an -d 95-percent of its total requirements of soap. Output in 1947 amounted. to 5/900 tons. Exports of fats, oils, and oilseed are insignificant, and except for sesame seed, they represent only a fraction of total production. Exports of sesame seed for 194? a ^d 1948 amounted to. 53 a ^d 67 tons, respectively. The Republic has long been a net importer of fats and oils. Most of the tallow requirements are imported and have been supplied in the past principally from Argentina the United St-atos, and Uruguay. Lard imports have decreased in recent years, with the bulk of the requirements furnished by the Government -owned meat packing plant and the peanut oil factory. 389 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 56, No. 17 PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC T S EXPORTS 0? COPRA AMD COCONUT Oil. CONTINUED TO INCREASE IN I.IARCK l/ Exports of copra and coconut oil from the Philippine Republic again were greater than those of the preceding month. Copra exports last month, at 142,150 long tons, were larger by 9 per- cent than the 30,655 tons shipped in February. In comparison with exports in -arch 1948, however, shipments from the Philippines last month were about one-fifth smaller. PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC: Copra exports, March 1949 with comparisons (Long tons) Copra distribution Country ~hl Average Jan. -Tlar March 193F-39 194 8 2/ 1949 2/ 194S 2/ 1949 2/ United States (total).; Atlantic Coast 206,801 - 3.64,102 (61,618) (69,320) (233,1610 17,049 . 100 54,08l r (10,297) (10,652) (33,135) 1,450 - 26,760 ( " ) (6,428) (20,332) 3,500 - 20,690 ( " ) (4,929) (15,761) 450 _ Llexico : Panama Canal Zone Panama, Republic of...: 7,260 - - 707 1,357 3, 860 6,000 - 320 : : / 209 _ I - 1,133 10 6,025 24,589 7,309 4,079 28,415 1,000 26,536 65,912 17,250 21,900 3,944 9,276 31,749 4,740 1,000 24,339 1,000 1,700 3,900 1,500 Denmark. » • * .»: 5,000 15,407 7,000 6,706 1,050 ■2,1400 1,500 1,000 2,000 8,900 14,086 2,712 Bizonal Germany.......: Italy... Netherlands 91 12,500 2,478 1,500 1,000 1,047 1,271 1,443 Union of South Africa.: 8,758 0/11,350 1^21+ 6,100 712 100 299,838 625,630 104., 583 53,338 ££,150 1/ Declared destination. 2/ "prsl iiainary • 3 ource : American Emba s sy,~~Llanila . l/ A more extensive statement may be obtained from the office of Foreign Agricultural Relations April 25, 1949 Foreign Crops and Markets 390 Coconut oil shipments from the Republic totaled !_}., 178 tons in March. This represents an inorease of slightly more than 6© percent -from the 2,598 tons exported in February and somewhat less than -60 percent from the 2,673 tons shipped out in March the year before. GRAINS v GRAIN PRODUCTS AND FEEDS (Continued from Page 381) SIAM'S RICE EXPORTS INCREASE SHARPLY l/ Rice exports of ^00 million pounds from Siam during the first ■'quarter of 1914-9 were up sharply from the million pounds exported in the same quarter of I9I4.8. Deliveries during the first week of April, continuing heavy, amounted to 97 million pounds as against 27 million pounds in the same week the year before. Relatively heavy exports and increased purchases from growers thus far this sea'son bear out early predictions that a large surplus from the 19^8 crop would be available for export. The December 1 forecast of 2,750 million pounds for the exportable surplus is still considered reasonable. Current estimates by various Siamese Government and trade representatives vary from 1,870 to 3,300 million pounds, - ' . SIAM,:. Rice shipments, January-March, I9J4.9 ' . with . comparisons ■ ■ ' r ~" ^ ur ' rJc " r T.7 ' \ . . ', ~ ■„'T~* Year : ; January-: April-" : . July-"": October-: Total : March : Jun e : Sept embj-jr: Do c omber : , : Million : Million : Million •: Million : Million ♦ pounds : pounds : pounds : pounds : pounds Average - 1936-kO.... :'. : ; ■ - - : 2,920 ; 19U7 * : 221: . 283: I34-: 151 : 790 : 19U6 : . J+2U: 509:."- ' 385: U69: 1,787 19^9......'. : . 900: : - : - : l/ . 2,75.0 l/ Export surplus . American Embassy, Bangkok. Total new-crop (19^4-8-14-9) purchases from producers up to March 20 approximated 1,870 million pounds, purchases, first made on December 1, have averaged over 470 million pounds a month. l/ A more extensive statement may be obtained from the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations. 391 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 53, No. "7 COTTON AIfp,/>THER_ FIBER COTTON -PRICE QUOTATIONS ON FOREIGN MARKETS The following table &ho$«| certain cotton-price quotations on foreign markets converted at current rates of exchange; COTTON: Spot prices in certain foreign markets, and the U.S. gulf -port average Market location, . Date kind, and quality 1 19^9 A lexandria \ Ashmouni, Good : ^21 Ashmouni, F G.F » Karnak . Good « tt Itarnak, F.G.F. ............ ; ii 3pm bay ; Jarilaj Fine : h Broach, Fine . . . , , ; n Fampala, East African. ..... j " Karachi : 4F Punjab , S . Q . . Fine : ^_20 269 F Sind, S.G'. , Fine : a 289F Punjab, S.G. , Fine . . . : » B uenos Aires : Type B : ^ 2 1 lima Tanguis, Type 5 : ^_ 2 q Pima , Type 1 : n 1 Re cife : Mata, Type h , . 4-21 Sertao, Type 5 : n Sao Paulo . Sao Paulo, Type 5. . , : ti To rre on . Middling, 15/16" „ H ouston -Ca lves ton -New ; "Or leans a'v . Mid. 15/16 " : it Unit of weight Unit of Price in f oreisn , currency ■ o*.- : currency :per pound iTallari : " • 47.40 : 45.40 : 67.95 : 62,70 : 39.55 : 37.88 ' 56.70 ; ; 52.32 .•Rupee : •» : 620.00 : 65O.OO : (not 5 23.86 : 25.01 available) : 88 . 00 95.00 : 98,50 32.27 34.83 36.ll :Peso 3400.00 45.92 :Sol (not (not quoted} quoted) :Cruzeiro 215.00 1 205.00 « 35.37 33.73 t tj t 205.00 : 33.73 :Peso ; 192.00 : 27.15 ; Kan tar 99.05 lbs Candy 7o4 lbs Maund 82.28 lbs Metric ton 2204.6 lbs, Sp quintal 101.4 lbs. Arroba 33.07 lbs. Sp. quintal 101.4 lbs. Pound Cent xxxxx Quotations of foreign markets reported by cable from U.S. Foreign Sen posts abroad. U.S. quotations from designated spot markets. i April 25, 1949 Foreign Crops and Markets 392 COTTON CROP ESTIMATE IN INDIA REVISED DOWNWARD The 1 94,8-49 commercial cotton crop in India is now estimated by- official and private sources at 1,715*000 bales (of 500 pounds gross weight), according to a report from Henry W. Spielman, American Consul at Bombay. After adding about 225,000 bales for cotton used by home industries the total of 1,9^0,000 bales is 11(3,000 less than the latest previous estimate published by this Office and 23 percent less than the ISkl -US crop of 2,510,000 bales. The present cotton shortage in India is becoming a matter of serious concern to mill owners and the cotton trade. Representatives of these interests are convinced that the 19^8-49 Pakistan crop did not exceed 850,000 equivalent bales and expect that it will be impossible to obtain the 5^-2,000 bales allocated by the Pakistan Government for export to India during the year ending August 31, 19^+9 . The Pakistan Government recently agreed to sell between 62,000 and 83,000 bales to Japan (no previous quota) and has issued export permits for about 335 > 000 bales to other countries. Importers in India do not expect to receive during the 191+8-^9 year more than U00,000 bales of the remaining surplus of 450,000. This estimate, based on a reduced crop estimate, may be too optimistic in view of domestic requirements of about 150,000 bales. Indian Government officials have repeatedly denied rumors of any attempt to obtain dollars through any form of loan for the purchase of American cotton. Interest in Egyptian cotton has been keen since the decline in prices, and sizable orders were placed in recent weeks. Importers are also hoping to obtain some cotton from the crops now being harvested in South Brazil and Argentina where expenditure of dollar exchange would not be necessary. In order to conserve the scarce supply of Indian cotton without restricting the receipts of dollar exchange, the exportation of cotton from India to all soft currency areas has been prohibited since March, 194-9 • -Three mills in Ahmedabad were closed early in April awaiting the arrival of cotton, and several others had announced that the second and third shifts will be stopped after April 15» Transactions on the Bombay spot market rarely exceeded 300 running bales a day recently and practically no trading was done on the futures market in March. Black market activity in seed cotton and to some extent in baled cotton was. reported to be increasing in most cotton areas* Statistics issued by the Government earlier this year anticipated a 191+8-4.9 crop of 1,880,000 bales (of 500 pounds gross) which, when added to the carry-over of 1,100,000 bales at the beginning of this season and expected imports of 54-0,000 from Pakistan, would make an available supply of 3,850,000 bales of Indian and Pakistan cotton against expected requirements of 2,940,000 bales during the year. Exports were expected to total about 21+5,000 bales and about 325,000 were estimated as unfit for mill consumption, leaving a probable carry-over of .about 325,000 bales of spinnable cotton of these types on August 31, 1949* The production 393 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol, 58, IToi 17 and import (Pakistan) figures were subsequently reduced, as explained earlier, so supplies of these types of cotton may be down to less than 2-month s ' requirements by the time the 1949-50 crop becomes available. Imports from Pakistan, soft currency areas, and sterling areas (except East Africa and the Sudan) are unrestricted. The Government is purchasing East African and Sudan cotton on its own account under a joint agreement with the British Government. • These purchases, expected to total nearly 250,000 bales together with possible small imports from other sources and normal imports of about 250,000 bales together with possible small imports from other sources and normal imports of about 250,000 bales from Egypt, may enable the mill industry to maintain operations near the present ' level until the new Indian crop arrives on the market-. BELGIAN COTTON CONSUMPTION RUNNING BELOW LAST SEASON l/ Cotton consumption recovered somewhat from the low point of November and December, but for the first 6 months of the current season (August through January ) consumption is still running II4. percent under the same period of the I9I17-U8 season. The domestic textile market is reported saturated, and in view of present difficulties in exporting to most countries the industry probably cannot expect any improvement soon. The 10 to 20 percent decline in cotton goods prices during 194^ reflects the weakening of demand . Belgian cotton consumption in 19-U7 reached 1+21,000 bales but will probably fall below 370,000 bales in I9I+8-L1.9 * In prewar years cotton consumption averaged 35^,000 bales annually, of which about I4.O percent was used to produce goods for the export market. With textile production above prewar levels Belgium must export an even larger share of its total production. Exports of cotton textiles have boon increasing steadily but have not reached prewar levels. This high production, with low exports, end slackening of domestic demand have resulted in the accumulation of large textile stocks over the past year. In addition, imports of cotton textiles .have been above prewar, which has led to strong protests from the industry. Protest also has been made to the Belgian Government regarding the nonobservance by some countries of the provisions in bilateral commercial treaties providing for the export of textile products. It is claimed that several countries have not only reduced the imports of textiles below the volumes specified under signed agree- ments, but that in some cases they ignore them completely due to an alleged lack of Belgian francs. l/ Based on reports of Jerome T. Gaspard, agricultural Attache, Chalmers B. Wood, Third .Secretary, and Ruffin L. Noppe and Florent N. Thonus, Clerks, American Embassy. Brussels, Belgium. April 25, 1949 Foreign Crops and Market 394 The Belgian Federation of Textile Industries states that the diffi- culties encountered by Belgium in exporting textile products are mainly due to the following reasons: 1* Shortage of Belgian francs in many countries and the inconvertibility of, several currencies; 2. Countries which previously purchased from Belgium have now expanded their own textile industries and no longer depend on imports to fill their require- ment s ; 3. High tariffs in effect in certain countries which hinder Belgian export trade. Imports of raw cotton have been increasing and stocks have been rebuilt to the normal level of more than 3-months' supply. The increase in Imports was due largely to greater arrivals from the United States. In January and February of 19^9 about two-thirds or 10*000 bales of Belgian imports came from the United States, as compared to only 25 per- cent in the 1947-US season. In the first 7 months of the current season the United States has shipped 97*000 bales of cotton to Belgium, as compared to only 53*000 bales during the entire i9l4.7-i.j_8 season. None of these cotton shipments have been financed by the Economic Cooperation Administration. Belgium received its first E.C.A. procurement authoriza- tion in March l^Lg for 1,000 bales. GREEK COTTON CONSUMPTION CONTINUES AT HIGH LEVEL l/ Cotton consumption in Greece is being maintained at about the same level as that of the past 2 years, or about 85,000 bales annually. The domestic cotton crop supplies about 60 percent of Greece's raw cotton requirements and about I4.O percent is imported, Brazil and Egypt have been supplying most of Greece's imports in the past, but imports of United States cotton financed by the Economic Cooperation Administration have been increasing. In -che first 5 months (August through December I9U8) of the current season, Greece imported ij., 90I4. bales from .Bra zil, ^,Jl6 bales from Egypt, and 89!;. bales from the United States. Imports from India and Pakistan, formerly important sources of supplies, have dwindled and in the first 5 months of the current season amounted to only 37O bales. The United States has authorized the shipment of 20,000 .bales .under the European Recovery Program. Most of this is still to be shipped and should meet most of the 20,000-bale Import requirement for the remainder of the I9J4.8-49 season. l/ Based on reports by Jay G. Diamond, Agricultural Attache, and Charles R. Tanguy, Third Secretary, American Embassy, Athens. 395 Foreign Crops end Harkcts Vol. 58, Uo Greece is att er.pt ing to increase cotton production by maintaining prices at favorable levels and restricting imports. The 53>000-bale crop in l^k&i however, is far below the 1953-39 average of 76,000 bales annually. Imports have been restricted as a matter of Government policy in order both to save foreign exchange and to insure full utilization of the domestic crop and payment of a fair price to farmers. Cotton mills, in order to be eligible for the issuance of import licenses, are required by law to purchase 30 percent of the domestic crop by the end of November another I4O percent in December, January, and February, and the final 30 percent between March 1 and l.,ay 31« The Greek Government has not established a farm "security" price for cotton as for other principal crops but by restricting imports maintains prices at favorable levels. Prices paid to farmers are now relatively higher than those of most other crops. These favorable prices, in addition to a decline in acreage normally sown to winter grains and a good demand for cotton seed, should encourage farmers to make greater efforts to increase their cotton acreage this year. The outlook for increased consumption is uncertain and depends on the possibility of increasing the purchasing power of the Greek people There are considerable stocks of cotton goods on hand in factories . and shops, and it seems doubtful that ootton consumption by spinning mill will increase in this crop year. The long-range outlook for increased cotton cultivation in Greece is very favorable and may reach the Government goal of 375*000 acres by 1953* This is over three times the lQl+8 area and above the prewar peak of 205,000 acres planted in 1937* The Government is riving much attention to increasing yields by' bringing a larger percentage of cotton acreage under irrigation, by distributing and otherwise encouraging the use of improved and more productive varieties of seeds, by controlling insect pests, and by modernizing ginning facilities. Present plans for construction of the principal dams and canals needed for irrigation of cotton and other crops are based on expected financing by the Greek Government with E.C.A. aid. The farmers are being encouraged to organize themselves or make use of existing cooperatives for such purposes as •undertaking construction projects and financing necessary expenditures. In several areas these programs have already been put into action and irrigation projects have been started. All of these factors ana the fact that cotton provides the fanner with a relatively satisfactory income combine to make an encouraging long-range outlook for cotton cultivation in Greece. April 25, 1949 Foreign Crops and Markets 396 JUTE SUPPLY COKTIFUES SCARCE The 5-billion pound jute crop (according to the latest official estiirate) that was produced in India and Pakistan in 1.948 is 3^0 million pounds less than the prewar (1935"39) average of 3*4 billion pounds, and far below the peak crop of 5-3 billion pounds produced in 1940» reduced output in 1948 is. due to damage by high water both in India and Pakistan. Some of the lower areas reported as much as 25 percent loss. Losses occurred not only in reduced quantity but in a lower quality of the fiber. JUTE: Area and production in India and Pakistan, average 1935*39 ^° calendar year 1948 Calendar years Area ■ Production 1/ Calendar years • Area. production 1/ 1,000 acres Million pounds iToo'cT 7 " acres Million pounds Average : 1935-39... (Year) 1940. 1941-45... 1946-48... 2,856.4 5,663.8 2,531.6 2,421.2 3,382.6 5,2?'4.6 2,858.7 2,392.3 Years; 1946 1947 1948 1,910.9 2,710.5 2,642«2 2,259.1 3,415.4 3,002.3 l/ Includes imports from Nepal. Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations. Compiled from official all- India forecasts published by the Director of Agriculture, Bengal. Although production reached 3. 4 million pounds in 1947 "the 4 preced- ing crops had been so small that they averaged only 2.7 million pounds annually. Wartime production (average 19^-4-1 -^4-5 ) was less than 2.9 million pounds annually, or only about 85 percent of the prewar average, and postwar production has averaged only 86 percent of the prewar figure. Production In 1949 has been forecast by trade sources in India at about 2.Ll million pounds in Pakistan and O.04 million in India, making a total of about 3.24 million pounds from the combined areas, India and Pakistan together produce most of the world supply of raw jute, but of the 2 countries Pakistan in 1948 had 71 percent of the combined area and 73 percent of the combined production. Since the separation of the 2 countries, the Government of India lias succeeded in increasing production In its area. The 1948 crop was a third greater than the I9I4.6 production. The 1948 crop in Pakistan is nearly a third larger than the small crop of 1946 but, due largely to floods, it is 20 percent smaller than the 1947 crop. 397 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 58, Ko. 17 JUTE: Area and production in India and Pakistan, I9I+6 to 191+8 Area and production Area (thousand acres): India 1/' 191+6 1,573.6 537.3 1,910*9 191+7 191+8 2,053.7 651.8 2,710*$" ~: 1,876.6 765.6 ~ 2,61+2*2 Pakistan as percent of Production (million sounds ) s Pakistan « 71 Q 1,651.2 607.9 / U . U 2,737.0 678.1+ 71 n fl.U 2) 191. 7 810.6 Total Pakistan as percent of 2,259.1 _5 jri.5 .i7~ _ 73.1 80.1 73.0 1/ Includes imports from IJepal which were estimated at r .bout 80 million pounds in I9I46, more than I5 in I'yhl , *-ead nearly 18 in I9I+8 • Office of Foreign Agricultural delations. ^Compiled from official all- India forecasts published by the Director of Agriculture, Bengal. The largast consumers of raw jute arc the jute goods manufacturing mills in Calcutta, By agreement Pakistan will deliver 2 million pounds to those mills curing the 19l+8-l r 9 crop year against India's agreement to parchas-j that amount • At the end of December 1^1+3 the mills reported they had purchased 75 percent of the amount agreed upon but deliveries were lagging considerably behind schedule. Stocks of raw jute in Calcutta were reported to be at the low figure of 600 million pounds at the end of March I9I1-8 compared with 790 million at the corresponding time in I9I+7 . During the third quarter of 1948 stocks dropped to only 1+12 million pounds. Although 719*6 million pounds were reported on hand at the end of December, the supply was still quite low'* Exports of raw jute from Calcutta in the last quarter of lQl+3 were only 30.1+ million pounds, compared with 219.2 million and 177*1+ million in the corresponding periods of I9I+7 and I9I+6, respectively. Exports from Chittagong, a Pakistan port, were estimated at 93«2 million pounds in the last quarter of I9I+8. Corresponding data for preceding years are not available, but a total of J05 .0 million pounds was exported during the your ended March Jl , 191+8. Production of manufactured jute goods in India has held up well compared with what raw jute supplies might indicate. Output during the last quarter of 191+3 amounted to 3,537 million pounds, compared with April 25; 19^9 Foreign Crops and Markets 398 3,508 and 2,95° million pounds during the corresponding quarters of 1947 and 1946, respectively. Output during the 1947*48 jute year totaled 13,825 million pounds, 12,858 millidn pounds in i^k6-kj, and 14,493 mill! pounds in 1945*46. Because of the continued short supply and low mill stocks of raw jute, sealing of 12-1/2 percent of the hessian looms in India has been under consideration, but current unofficial reports in the United States indicate that the Government of India has rejected the proposal at least for the present time. TROPICAL PRODUCTS DOMINICAN REPUBLIC'S 1948 CACAO EXPORTS AND 1948-49 PRODUCTION LOWER The Dominican Republic's cacao exports of 56,705,000 pounds for the 1948 calendar year show a decline of about lU percent from the record I9I+7 exports of 66,13^,000 pounds but were still slightly higher than the 1935-39 annual average of 5!;, 0h8, 000 pounds. The total 1948-49 cacao production in the Dominican Republic is now estimated at about 60 million pounds, slightly less than the 1947*48 production of 62 million pounds but still above the annual average of 54 million pounds for the period 1935*39* according to the American embassy in Ciadad Trujillo. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Exports of cacao beans in I9I4.8, with comparisons Destination : Average . 19U6 1947 1948 y 1 . 1,000 : pounds 1,000 pounds . 1,000 pounds 1,000 pounds Unit ed Stat e s Other Western Hemisphere.. 50,688 46,394 7,736 - Q2k- 9k 55, W I 63,926 879 • 1,329 66,13!+ 53,506 ; , 128 ' 3,071 ' 56,705 1/ Preliminary. SOURCE: Dominican Customs Receivership, Exportacion de la Republica Dominica , and U.S. Foreign Service reports. About 94 percent of the Dominican Republic's 1948 exports went to the United States and practically all of the balance to the Netherlands. In the prewar period 1935-39, the United States also took 94 percent of the cacao exported from the Dominican Republic, and Germany took most of the balance. 399 For sign Crops and Markets Vol. 58, No. 17 Important changes were effected in the Dominican Cacao industry in 19ia8. A |>2.5-million dollar chocolate processing plant was completed at Puerto Plata early in the year. The plant was purchased by the Dominican Government in March 19^8 and the manufacture of chocolate for export oegan later in the year, The Dominican Government hopes that most of the cacao beans produced in the country can be processed into chocoM-te for expert, and that total returns to the country will be increased substantially* Production and export of chocolate in 1^1$ has not been very encouraging. A large export outlet did not develop as importers tended to prefer beans rather than chocolate. Further difficulties were encountered as a result of price declines between the time beans were purchased and chocolate was processed for export. Under these conditions, profits on exports of chocolate were limited. Export duties on cacao beans were increased substantially in March and again in December 1948. Increases were for the purpose of obtaining additional revenue and resulted in lower prices to growers, prices paid to growers reached a jeah of 33 cents a pound in February lyii-Qj hut dropped in March following enactment of higher export duties. They continued to decline during the year partly as a result of lever world prices for cacao beans and readied a low of 10 1/2 cents per pound in December following the second increase in expert duties. MEXICAN 19U8 COFFEE EXPORTS LOVJERj I9I18-I4.9 PRODUCTION HIGHER Mexico's 19^4-8 calendar year exports of 520,661 bags of green coffee fell 5 percent below the 19U? exports of 547*805 bags and 13 percent below the 1935-39 prewar annual average of 599 * 210 bags. Estiiratys of the 19kQ-k9 total coffee production range from 1,000,000 to 1,108,000 bags, as compared with the lyl+J-J+il production of 923*000 bags ana the 1935-39 annual average of 959*000 bags, according to the American Embassy in Mexico. Total 19'it-8 exports of green coffee from Mexico" were' the lowest for any calendar year since l^t\2» The United States received more than 99 percent of Mexican coffee exports in 1 9)4.8 •' The most important European buyers we're the Netherlands, Italy, Sweden, and Belgium. In the 'prewar years, 1935 "39* ' 62 percent of Mexican coffee' exports were' to' the United States and yo percent to Europe, principally Germany. V» r eather conditions in the l'ji\.Q-l^} season were excellent in Mexico's coffee producing districts. A bumper 1948-49 coffee crop is being harvested and the exportable surplus is forecast at between 685*000 and 750,000 bags. The large 194&-49 crop is due to the unusually favorable season, as in general yields per coffee tree have been declining steadily since 1936* Quality of coffee has also dropped. To correct this situation the Ministries *£ National Economy and Agriculture recently announced a program to create a National Coffee Institute which will concentrate on promoting and improving coffee production in Mexico. April 25; 19^9 x^oreign Crops and Markets MEXICO: Exports of green coffee in l'9l|8, with comparisons Destination Average ! 19I46 X9h7 1/ 19kB 1/ Bags : Bags Bags Bags United States. 369,4.06 228,747 1,057. 599,210 :* 526,S25 : 21,065 : 555,128 523,i;lU 19,315 76_ 5^7 ,305 513,807 1,821 Total , 55 , , 520,661 1/ Preliminary. SOURCE: Annuario Estadistico dol Commercio Kxberior and U.S. Foreign Service Reports. TOBACCO BRAZIL'S TOBACCO EXPORTS DECLINE Brazil's exports of leaf tobacco in I948 totaled 54«8 million pounds, or about 34 percent less than the 32.9 million pounds exported in 19-4-7, according to the American Consulate in Porto Alegre. The I9U8 experts were 53 percent below the record expox-ts of 116.6 million pounds in I946 and 23 percent below the prewar, 1935-39, annual average exports of 71.0 million pounds. During I948 the most important outlets for Brazilian leaf were Argentina, Spain, and the Netherlands. These countries tool: lU.2 million pounds, 12*7 million pounds and 9«1 million pounds, respectively. Germany s the most important prewar outlet for Brazilian leaf, entered the market for the first time since I94O and took 3*9 million pounds. This compares with prewar, 1935-39, average annual exports to Germany of 30»4 million pounds. Other countrie s. taking. Brazilian leaf in 1948 include Uruguay, Belgium and Luxembourg, Denmark, Switzerland, and France. - BRAZIL: Exports of leaf tobacco, I948 with comparisons Country of Destination : Average : 1935-39 Argentina , Uruguay. Belgium and Luxembourg. Denmark. France , Gerirany Netherlands . , Spain , Swit zerland , Other Countries........ I, 000 pounds II, 037 2,394. l,44l 1/ 1,630 30,376 13,2U7 1/ 1/ 57851 Total...". 1/ Included in "Other Count Source: Brazilian Federal : 71,026 1946 1, 000- pound s 3,704 2,180 4,764 8,510 23,869 12,906 33,422 7,253 9,978 116,586 19-47 1,000 pounds 10,086 2,022 6,122 3,415 14,905 10,093 17,017 5,362 13,840 860 1,000 pounds 14,151 2,1+85 1,206 3,909 L.83 3,944 9,lU0 12,718 2, 806 3,947 54,789 rie s , " Ministry of Finance, hoi Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 58, No. I? FRANCE'S TOBACCO ACREAGE AM) PRODUCT I Oil; IMPORTS REDUCED France ts I946 tobacco crop is estimated at about 9 percent below the record 1947 crop, according to the American Embassy in Paris, The area planted to tobacco in 1943 was about 11 percent below 1947* ~ ou t the I948 yield per acre was larger. Leaf imports in I948 were sharply reduced, being 59 percent, below 1947 • • - The I9J4S tobacco crop, which is no\\ r being, delivered to the French Government Monopoly, is estimated at iO$«A million pounds, farm sales weight, compared with the record 19-1-7 crop of 115»1 million pounds and bhe prewar, 193 0- 39, annual average of 72.2 million pounds. The reduction in the I946 crop was due to a decrease in acreage which. apparently occurred from the elimination of premium prices formerly . paid to growers who maintained or increased production. The area planted to tcbo.cco in 1948 is placed at 6i|, 090 acres, compared with 71/955 acres in I9I4.7 and an annual average of 1;2,500 acres in the 1930-39 period. The 1948 yield per acre of 1,637 pounds was the largest in several years and. was primarily due to very favorable weather during the growing season. FRAIICE: Area, yield per acre and production of tobacco, I9I4.8 with comparisons . . Yield i YEAR • ■ : Area ■ : p$r : Production : : acre : 1,000 : : ,1,000 : acrjs : Pounds : pounds Average : : : 1930-39. : 42. 5 : 1,695 : 72,216 1946 : 60.7 : 1,1+61 : 89,932 1947... : . 72.0 - 1,597 - : 115,062 19kC'l/.. : 64.I ' :• 1,637 ■ • :• 104,-939 - l/ Preliminary. Source: French ''Tobacco Monopoly. " ' ' ' Leaf . imports in 1 9I4S totaled 26.1 million pounds/ compared with 68.5 million pounds I in 1947 and an* annual' average of ' 81,4' million pounds in. the prewar, 1930-39, period. ''Algeria supplied* 10.5' million pounds, or about 37 percent of France's leaf imports' in' 1943. Other countries supplying substantial quantities of leaf in I94O" include Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria, Brazil and Colombia,. Imports' from the .United States are reported at less than 1#0 million pounds in 1948, compared April 25, 191+9 Foreign Crops and Markets U02 with 13*6 million pounds in 19^7 arL d an annual prewar average of 29«7 million pounds in the 1930-39 period. COSTA RICA'S TOBACCO PRODUCTION LARGER; IMPORTS DECLINE Costa Rioa f s 19I+8-I+9 tobacco production increased and 19^8 tobacco imports declined from the previous year's levels, according to the American Embassy in San Jose. The decline in imports was due to Government restrictions on the use of foreign exchange for the purchase of tobacco, and this situation probably helped to . stimulate domestic production. The country's 191+8-1+9 tobacco harvest is estimated at 2.8 million pounds, compared with about 2.5 million pounds in I9I+7.-48 and an annual average of about 1.7 million pounds during. the preceding 5-y ea r period, 191+2-1+3 through I9I+6-I+7. ^bout 99 percent of the 1^1+8-1+9 crop was . suncured. leaf and about 1 percent flue-cured. This is the first year that flue-cured toba.cco has been grown commercially in Costa Rica.. Leaf imports totaled 77*^00 pounds in 19-1+3, compared with 9U>900 pounds in 191+7 anQ an annual average of 122,800 pounds during the pre- ceding 5-y ear period, 191+2-1-+6. A total of 70>600 pounds, or about 91 percent of the I9I+8 leaf imports were of United States origin. The remaining 7>00P pounds came from the Eastern Mediterranean area. The country's I9I+8 cigarette imports totaled about 5U»9 million pieces, compared with about 68.0 million pieces in 19U7 ana an annual average of about ^0*0 million pieces during the preceding 5-y ea r period. Practically all I9I+8 cigarette imports' were from the United States. • FRUITS, VEGETA BLES AND NUTS APPLE AND PEAR CROPS HIGHER IN ARGENTINA The first indicated production of the I9I+8-I+9 crop of apples and pears in Argentina is placed at 8.9 and 5*1 million boxes, respectively. The estimated production of 8.9 million is a little more than double last year's crop of l+.l;. million and will be the largest crop on record. The pear crop of 5»1 million is percent above the previous year's crop of 3*3 million and 109 percent above the prewar average of 2.1+ million. Production, stimulated by favorable growing conditions in the irrigated district of the Rio "Negro Neuquen Valleys, is estimated at 9.3 million boxes of apples and pears almost 1+ times as much as was produced during the previous season. Fruit from Argentina will be exported principally to Venezuela and Belgium and a limited amount to the United States.* J_j_03 Foreign Crops and Markets Vol. 58, No. 17 Production of apples and pears in Argentina 19lj,64|8 ADQles Pears • ZONE 19U6-1+7 19U7-U8 19U6-U9 ' 1946-47 1947-1+8 19I+8-I+9 1,000 boxes Rio Negro Neuquen . . . Buenos Aires Santa Fe . . Merdoza, San 3/927 1,693 1,352 201 1,167 1,658 1,208 6,013 1,754 802 d., 1 10 1,448 \, . 1+12 147 1,^42 1,1+98 1+16 170 3,? J / 1,002 1+01 201 361 375 Total 7,173 4,394 8,944 : 4,725 3,327 5,m Apple and pear shipments through April 1+ from Argentina to the United States are as follows: apples $00 boxes, pears 252,819 boxes, and grapes 2J4, 015 boxes.' In addition approximately ' 50, 000 boxes of pears and a few boxes of apples are under treatment for later shipment, APPLE CROP LARGER IN SWITZERLAND The I9I4-8 apple crop in Switzerland has been revised and is now indicated to be 3°»3 million bushels, about the same as in I9I+6 but 74 percent above the small crop of 17»5 million in 1947* The pear crop of 9.7 million bushels is -1+2 percent below the 1947 crop of 16.8 million but slightly larger than the prewar crop. The apple and pear crops were damaged by scab called "tavelure" in Switzerland. In most of the orchards from 70 to 80 percent of the I9I+8 crops were affected. The cherry crop now estimated at lf7,000 short tons is 32 percent below last year's crop of 69,000 but 88 percent 'above the 1935-39 average of 25,000. Continuous rains in June and July damaged the cherry crop, resulting in much of it being used for distilling fruit alcohol. Plums estimated at 32,000 tons are about the same as in I9I4.6 and 1947, arid apricots at I)., 000 tons are 11 percent above last year's crop of 3,600 tons. Switzerland exported 3.8 million bushels of apples and pears in 1948, of which Germany and Belgium received 72 percent or 1 .1+ and 1.1 million, respectively. April 25, I9I1.9 Foreign. Crops and Markets i;0[j. AUSTRALIAN 19^9 RAISIN AND CURRANT FORECAST LOITERED The 19'r9 preliminary forecast of raisin production in Australia has been lowered to 53*200 short tons compared with 70*100 tons in I9I+8 and 50,500 tons in 1947 • The present forecast consists of 1+7*000 tons of Sultanas and 6,200 tons of Lexias* The forecast is 28 percent below the 5-year ( lyl\2-l\6 ) average of 73*^00 tons and 25 percent below the 10-year ( 1937---P) average of 71,100 tons. The currant forecast has been lowered to 20,200 tons compared with 19,300 tons in I9I+8 and 12,700 tons in 1947 • This is 9 percent below the 5-yeur ( 1942-ip ) average of 22,300 tons and 12 percent below the 10-yej.r (1937-46) average of 22,900 bons. Early in the season it was anticipated a oetter-than-average crop would be produced. This was based on an anticipated shortage of gasoline for trucks which would take fresh grapes to wineries and would, therefore, direct grapes to drying. Late in February and early March heavy rains and high .humidity did considerable damage in the Murray Valley. Damage was partioularily bad at Eildura. Fortunately for growers in the area, most of the currants had been harvested. The davage was largely to Sultanas which were still being harvested. There was a small loss of Lexias, The heavy reduction in production will reduce the amount available for export to the United Kingdom, - Canada,' and Lew Zealand. These countries will find it. necessary to fill a larger percentage of their needs in other producing countries of the world; EXPORTS. OF PALM .OIL AND PA LM KER NELS —(Continued from Page 377) Exports of kernels from British Malaya in I 948 totaled 7,249 tons. Nearly one-fourth more than the quantity shipped in 1947, exports in 1948 "were auout one-tenth less than the volume exported in prewar years. palm kernels exported from Indon esia in 19.48 totaled 10,850 tons. This was considerably more than the 1,758 tons shipped cut in 1947 bat was only about one-fourth as great as the average quantity exported in prewar years. This is one of a series of regularly scheduled reports on world agricultural production and trade prepared by tlu Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations Committee on Foreign Crop and Livestock Statistics. For this report, the Committee was composed of Joseph A. Becker, Chairman, C. M. Purves, Olav F. Anderson, Regina H. Boyle, Helen Francis, Mary E. Long and John E. Hobbes. Foreign Crops and Market's Vol. 5.8, Mo. 17 LATE N E >T S The I9I4.S-I4.9 cotton crop in Haiti suffered heavy damage from boll weevils and amounted to less than 6,000 bales (of 500 pounds gross) compared with 10,600 last year. Mill consumption (1 mill) in I9L0 amounted to 800 bales and 200 to yOZ bales were consumed in making mattresses and other handicraft items. The mill is expected to consume 1,700 bales in 19k9. Exports in I9I4.8 totaled 9,300 bales including 3,600 to the United Kingdom, 3, *fiO to Belgium, 1,300 to France and 1,100 to the Netherlands. Only about kOO bales remained in stock at the end of 19k8.